International | : how did Germany create the "industria

2018-11-06 19:30

Why does Germany, with a population of just 80 million, have more than 2,300 world brands?"
This stems from Germany's craftsman spirit will pay great attention to each production detail, and the inheritance of craftsman spirit cannot be separated from education, then what outstanding points does Germany's education have?
The age of primary school in Germany is generally 6 years old, and the school period is 4 years, that is, grade 1~4.

Figure 1: education architecture in Germany

School teachers will then advise parents on what type of school is appropriate for their child based on his or her performance in school or the student's grades over the four years.
That is to say, German children are separated from grade 5, and students enter different levels and different types of school.
The advantage of doing so is that it can be targeted to teaching, so as to achieve better teaching results;
What is not enough is that students are divided into different levels since childhood, and they will feel differently treated, and there will be more or less a certain gap in psychology.
The types of education in German middle schools are diversified, including Hauptschule, Realschule (similar to technical secondary school), Gymnasium (Gymnasium), Gesamtschulen, and "special school" (Sonderschule) for children with physical defects.

Figure 2: analysis of education system in Germany

From primary school to high school graduation in Germany, it takes 13 years to study before entering university, which is one year more than K12 education in primary and secondary schools in China.
This means that Chinese undergraduates who want to go to Germany for undergraduate study need to take at least one semester of university courses in domestic key universities (three semesters in ordinary universities) before they are qualified to apply for German universities.
Of course, choosing different types of schools means going down different paths. Then I will introduce the final trend of different types of schools.
As shown in the figure above, the so-called "comprehensive secondary school" refers to a comprehensive school covering three types of secondary schools, namely Hauptschule, Realschule (similar to secondary school) and Gymnasium (Gymnasium).

A glimpse of wenli high school in Germany from: Micheal Faust

Some comprehensive schools also offer "senior middle school", similar to that of a liberal arts school.
The principle of "comprehensive school" is to teach students in accordance with their aptitude. Students can choose higher or simpler courses according to their ability. The syllabus also includes courses in "career education".
All federal states recognize graduation from comprehensive schools.
In recent years, the "comprehensive school", with its flexibility of education organization, has been popular among students and parents, becoming the "second pillar" in the education system of German schools, except for the liberal arts school.
Students who do well in their studies tend to go to a "liberal arts school", which lasts eight years, and then take the "Abitur", the German university entrance exam, which gives them a "high school diploma".

The image is from: TheLocal. DE

As mentioned in video, a high school diploma is the best way to go directly to the Universitat.
At the same time, those who get a little bit lower scores can choose "real secondary school", which usually lasts 6 years.
Such secondary schools are mainly set up to accommodate "career education", and students are mostly from middle-class families in Germany. As a result of "real science secondary school" has good education results, thus becomes the model of Germany education.
There are two main elements to establish its success. One is the teaching content of real secondary school attaches importance to the social background of Germany's transformation into a tertiary industry;
The other is that students who graduate from this school can obtain an "intermediate diploma" and have the possibility of developing in a more progressive way. Students can also continue to study in the "university of applied technology" (Fachhochschule, or FH for short, similar to the domestic university of science and technology). 
"Uni" and "university of applied technology (FH)" belong to the two branches of higher education in Germany. The "Uni" focuses on "theoretical research", and has a comprehensive set of majors, which can be read from undergraduate to doctoral.
However, the university of applied technology (FH) focuses on "practical application". It can get a master's degree, and the professional setting is not as much as that of a comprehensive university. It attaches more importance to technical application.

Uni cattle or FH strong, this problem is already weakened due to the process reform of bologna
"There are 397 institutions of higher learning in 16 federal states, with a total enrollment of about 2.8 million students. Among them, there are 115 comprehensive universities (Universitat, including Technische Universitat).

Munich university of science and technology, the fourth largest university in Europe
University of applied sciences (Fachhochschule) 217; There are 57 institutions of arts, music schools, and 8 universities of other types (including 6 normal universities, Padagogische Hochschule). There are more than 19,000 majors in various universities.
-- from the German academic exchange center (DAAD) 
From: Westdeutscher Rundfunk
When it comes to "vocational education", you may think of the classic advertisement "which is better to learn excavator", but the "professional education" in Germany is closely related to its unique social background -- the powerful industrialized country, the rigorous attitude and "craftsman spirit".

Images from the Internet
In China's highly regarded "double-track" professional education, the localization process is not the best, although domestic also imitate Germany USES the "double track", half the time in school learning theory, half the time to learn in a factory, cultured is "mentoring" in Germany, in the form of a system to determine the "master" and "students" relationship.
Although the situation in China is similar, the "cultural tradition" is too strong. For example, the concept of "the master leads the practice in the door", or "the disciple in the church starved to death", etc. It may be a matter of luck for the students to learn the real skills with the master.
In fact, the domestic occupation education could cultivate more blue-collar workers with professional skills. However, due to the social environment and many schools' eagerness for quick success and instant benefits, many students graduated from vocational schools did not learn any real skills, and even became assembly line workers in factories.
It is well known that both the first and second world wars were started by Germany. 
From the "German empire" to the "Nazi Germany", the germans have hardly stopped, they are the masters of trouble. Apart from political and historical factors, why did the little Germany dare to annex Europe and even dominate the world?
In short, it depends on Germany's "industrial strength".
Before the second world war, 70 percent of the Nobel prizes were won by germans. Germany accounted for 23 of the 26 epoch-making technological inventions, from "automatic rifle" to "cruise missile". At that time, Germany was armed to the teeth!
Next, I will share with you a wave of German black technology:
Peeling machine

Automatic hedge trimmer
Since the great German educator William von Humboldt and other generations of reform Germany education, so today Germany's modern higher education looks like.
German universities have a place in the world.
Maybe some people do not know that before world war ii, the United States was still a young brother. At that time, Germany was the "destination" for americans to study abroad, just as americans today yearn for American universities.
To put it simply, for the American academic circles at that time, have never been to Germany to study abroad, are embarrassed to say that they are professors!

Established in 1385, the university of Heidelberg is 633 years old, which is the oldest university in Germany

Students in the education system in Germany have been studying for a long time.
A friend who studied in Germany once joked that German college graduates are on average two to five years more than those from other European and American countries, so it is easy to become "leftover men" to study in German universities.
Although this is not common in many European and American countries, but is the so-called "slow work makes minute work", which is also the result of the German university excellent quality and high reputation!

By | bashan
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