Vocational education in Czech

2018-11-06 19:46

In recent years, Czech economic development is remarkable, with a sustained growth rate of about 4% of GDP in the European Union countries among the top. The strong recovery in the euro zone, especially in Germany, has benefited from the fact that the Czech Republic is a traditional industrial country, an export-oriented economy that produces more than half of its products for exports.

Rapid economic growth and strong demand for jobs have left the Czech Republic with the lowest unemployment rate in the European Union, with a national unemployment rate of 3.8 per cent. In Prague, the capital, the unemployment rate is even 1.5.

Behind these beautiful numbers, however, lies the inevitable reality: 85% of manufacturing companies cannot recruit qualified skilled workers, with a shortfall of 100000 across the Czech Republic. In the long run, the Czech economy will lack sustained momentum. As a result, the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade, the Ministry of Education, the Industry and Transportation Association, the Vocational and Technical Schools, and other government and related industry departments have made every effort to solve the situation of "no one in succession" for skilled workers.

At present, these tactics have begun to bear fruit. According to the education department, as many as 37 percent of school-age teenagers chose to study at technical colleges in 2017, the highest proportion in 20 years, with an increase in the number of students majoring in electronics and machinery. Vocational and technical education has begun to arouse the interest of more and more students.

01 The history of vocational and technical education has a long history

The Czech Republic is now the largest industrialized country in the European Union, accounting for 47 percent of total economic output, more than 40 percent of Germany's (2015 statistics). 1/3 of the country's workforce is engaged in industrial production. Czech has a long history of industrial development, as early as the 14th century in the Czech steel production record, in 1595 built the first blast furnace. 19 century born in the Skoda factory was the largest industrial enterprise in the Austro-Hungarian empire at that time.

Czech steel, military, textile, glass, shoes, beer brewing and other manufacturing industries began to develop since the 19th century, becoming the most industrialized region of the entire Austro-Hungarian Empire. Before World War II, Czechoslovakia was the world's seventh largest industrial nation, above Austria, Italy and Spain.

A long tradition of industrialization is also reflected in education. Founded in 1837, the Bethlehem Industrial School in Prague is 180 years old. It is not only the earliest industrial school in the Czech Republic, but also one of the earliest industrial schools in Europe. The vocational and technical personnel trained in the school played a positive role in the early industrial development of the Czech Republic.

Because of the strong industrial tradition, the importance of vocational and technical education is very popular in the Czech Republic. Most junior high school students who intend to continue their further studies will choose to enter a vocational school and learn a technical or technical skill. Prepare for a good job in society in the future.

According to statistics, the Czech Republic has the highest proportion of students choosing vocational and technical schools in the European Union, reaching 73. Even so, Czech vocational and technical graduates are still unable to meet the needs of enterprises. In the past ten years, Czech students' future career orientation began to favor economy, finance and other liberal arts. Hanak, chairman of the Czech Association for Industrial Transportation, says the country has a population of 10 million, but there are 22 public universities and 48 private universities. There are so many universities that society does not need so many graduates.

02. Shortage of skilled Workers-Government of Enterprises

The decline in the number of students choosing to study vocational skills in previous years and the strong recovery in the Czech economy in recent years have made the Czech manufacturing industry generally facing a severe shortage of vocational and technical workers. Companies often complain about not being able to hire enough skilled workers, and the Czech government, associations and research agencies are widely concerned about sluggish economic growth. Industry insiders expect 2/3 skilled workers to retire within the next 10 years, a trend that could leave 400000 jobs in 15 years.

Because of the shortage of graduates from vocational and technical schools, some enterprises have begun to employ college students. Skoda, for example, will need 2000 more skilled workers this year to add a new SUV production line to its new plant. Skoda's wages are higher in the region, at 36000 kroner ($1500) a month, more than a third of the average Czech salary, attracting many college graduates to apply. Engaged in assembly and other technical requirements are not too high work.

At the national level, the Czech government signed a cooperation agreement with Ukraine in 2016 to bring in 5,000 skilled workers a year. However, only importing workers from abroad is not the fundamental solution, more important is to attract more students from their own country to choose technical majors, and form a virtuous circle. As a result, the Czech Ministry of Education, in cooperation with the Association of Industrial and Transportation Industries and the Association of small and Medium-sized Enterprises, respectively organized the 2015 year of Vocational and Technical Education and the 2016 year of Trades and Crafts, respectively. Through the implementation of a series of activities in support of vocational education, the Czech Ministry of Education has achieved the From school to business, at all levels and in all fields, cooperation is making people reverse their prejudices. New emphasis on vocational technology, and then increase the number of technical students achieved good results.

03. grab from the doll-bury the seeds of interest

Interest is the best teacher. In order to develop children's interest in technical work, some vocational and technical education activities have been popularized since kindergarten, so that children can be exposed to all kinds of handwork at an early age.

Children in the lower grades of basic schools (nine years old, equivalent to Chinese elementary and junior high schools) can, under the guidance of vocational and technical teachers, try different types of work every week, such as lathe, carpentry, electrician, and bricklayer, through practical operation. Establish an intimate relationship between children and tools.

Hafricek, president of the Czech Association of small and Medium-Sized Enterprises, said he was in favor of children taking more labor classes to know what planer, ruler and file looked like. If you can work in the workshop for a few hours to make a wood hedgehog, this sense of achievement may make some students interested in choosing a vocational and technical major in the future.

But if you want to attract young people, hammers and screwdrivers are not enough, but also linked to newer technologies, such as today's craftsmen, who are already using drones for high-altitude cleaning. With the support of the Ministry of Education, some schools have begun to equip manual practice classes with drones, 3D printers and even robots to maximize students' interest in technical work.
 
Beshka, of the Czech Institute of Education, said the focus of promoting vocational and technical education in basic schools is to show parents that their children will have good career prospects if they take up vocational and technical jobs or master a trade in the future. The stereotype of skilled workers and craftsmen working in dirty, noisy workshops and making little money is no longer the case, and most of the work is accompanied by technological and material innovation. Car repairers, for example, now mostly operate in clean and tidy environments, using high-tech operations and earning a lot of money. In addition, this work is very stable, because there will always be orders.
 
04. precise docking let students choose their own interests
 
If vocational and technical education for students in the lower grades of kindergartens and basic schools is to foster interest, then establish a fixed link between the higher grades of basic schools and vocational and technical schools so that students can carry out practical operations on some technologies ahead of time. By aligning students' interests with their future majors, this greatly improves the accuracy of their major choices.

The Czech Ministry of Education began last year to build the Vocational and Technical Bird's Nest, a state-funded modern workshop for vocational and technical schools. Within 30 minutes of walking from the school, the basic school can establish a corresponding contact unit with it, and the senior students of the basic school can go to the workshop once a month for four hours of practical work and try different types of work. For the next step to choose the direction of school to provide reference.

Since its inception, the government has invested 100 million kroner ($4 million) in more than 20 vocational and technical schools in Prague to equip modern workshops. Students can not only learn about tools, materials and vocational and technical school curricula, but also have the opportunity to experience modern technology, such as building blocks to assemble robots. The Vocational and Technical Nest Program will be rolled out nationwide within two years.

Hafricek, president of the Czech Association of small and Medium-Sized Enterprises, hopes the program will become part of compulsory education in the Czech Republic in 2019. From a basic school point of view, the workshop is like a large laboratory where students can study in a variety of disciplines and stimulate interest in science and technology. From the point of view of vocational and technical schools, the students of these basic schools are their potential students and are therefore very enthusiastic and willing to work with them.

Sheraka, vice president of the Yarov Vocational and Technical School in Prague, said their workshop was very popular with students in basic schools around them and they had been interested in a variety of subjects such as pliers, carpentry, fireplaces and florists.
 
05.improve Teaching quality-make graduates more popular in the Job Market
 
At a time when most business owners complain about being unable to recruit skilled workers, mainstream voices in society argue that this is due to a decline in the number of students in vocational and technical colleges. However, some studies show that there are not few graduates of vocational and technical schools in some areas, but many students are not enrolled by business owners. The main reason is that school teaching is out of touch with social practice, and business owners prefer to hire graduates with professional counterparts and practical experience.

In response to this phenomenon, the Czech Ministry of Education, together with enterprises, implemented the "together" program. Aiming at the uneven teaching staff of vocational and technical secondary schools and the lack of the technical level of keeping pace with the times, the plan promotes the cooperation between the schools and the relevant enterprises so that the technical experts in the industry can work together without the need for teaching certification. To the vocational and technical school part-time teaching work. This policy has been implemented for four years, making the teaching more targeted and approachable, students mastering skills more practical and working faster.

In addition, in order to be strong in the first place, many Czech enterprises even look for students in basic schools and sign contracts with them to send them to vocational and technical schools to learn the kinds of jobs they need in their own enterprises. At least two or three years of service in the company after graduation. During the school period, the enterprise provides scholarships, room and board, transportation for students. In addition, during students' pre-graduation internships, companies offer students between 5 kg of Lang and 15000 kroner for work, which also increases the enthusiasm of students to learn technology.

Tommen, the principal of Ihrava Architectural College, said companies called him every day or two to hire staff, and he was always sorry to answer that students in their school already had corporate contracts.
 
06. "Industry 4.0"-New opportunities for Technical Education?
 
Following the launch of the "Industrial 4.0" strategy in Germany in 2013, the Czech Republic, which is closely linked to German industry, also adopted the "Industrial 4.0" initiative in August 2016 to maintain the competitiveness of the Czech Republic during the fourth Industrial Revolution.

Industry 4.0 will not only affect the way of industrial production, but also affect the labor market and employment structure. For cost reasons, the "industry 4.0" revamped enterprises will no longer need so many workers, robots will gradually replace many artificial jobs, and the remaining jobs will be for a few more qualified workers; Technological advances, on the other hand, change production and business models, creating new jobs in technology research, development and services. These new departments need people with good skills, learning skills and creativity. More importantly, good communication skills and the ability to solve complex matters Power, creative management, critical thinking, etc.

As a result of the enormous impact of "Industry 4.0", the Czech Ministry of Education has begun to study the "Education 4.0" programme with representatives of various industrial industries to match it with "Industrial 4.0", namely, in primary and secondary schools, University and adult continuing education field to strengthen students' core competitiveness and digital skills. The Ministry of Education wants Education 4.0 to deepen and complement existing strategic plans. Some companies hope that Education 4.0 will change the distribution of university funds by including areas such as biotechnology, nanotechnology and robotics as subsidies.

"Industrial 4.0" came so suddenly that many people were not fully aware of the impact that the fourth Industrial Revolution would have on people's lives and production, and how "Education 4.0" should fit in with "Industry 4.0". There are different opinions. Some predict, though, that half of EU jobs will disappear over the next 15 years with the introduction of Industry 4.0.

However, in European countries, different national conditions will also bring different results. Switzerland costs $65 an hour, Germany $47 and the Czech Republic $10. For countries with higher labour costs, machine substitution may save costs, while in countries such as the Czech Republic, where labour costs are relatively low, with the exception of some large international companies, Whether most small and medium-sized enterprises need to replace labor with expensive machines is still a question. Craftsmen are still ranked alongside computer experts and doctors among the most popular jobs the Czech Labour Office predicts for the future.

It'seems that machines can only replace part of labor, vocational and technical education in the future in the Czech Republic will be a long-term topic.